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[世界歷史] 感懷猶難,終身少買德意貨、少德意遊 ...



[隱藏]
In this epic history of extermination and survival, Professor Mr Timothy Snyder presents a new explanation of the great atrocity of the twentieth century, and reveals the risks that we face in the twenty-first. Based on untapped sources from eastern Europe and forgotten testimonies from Jewish survivors, Black Earth recounts the mass murder of the Jews as an event that is still close to us, more comprehensible than we would like to think, and thus all the more terrifying.

epic
漫長而艱難的

extermination 滅絕/根除


atrocity (尤指戰爭中的)暴行

untapped 未被使用的

testimonies 證詞

mass murder 屠殺案

comprehensible 易於理解的

terrifying 駭人聽聞的

Title: Black Earth: The Holocaust as History and Warning
Author: Mr Timothy Snyder ( He is the Housum Professor of History at YALE University and a member of the Committee on Conscience of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. )
Publisher: Tim Duggan Books


Conscience 良知、良心

Holocaust (第二次世界大戰前及期間納粹分子對猶太人的) 大屠殺

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iYFN2lHmqg8

https://webcat.hkpl.gov.hk/lib/item?id=chamo%3A3382634&fromLocationLink=false&theme=WEB

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Mr Julius Hirsch (bottom row, second from right), was one of the top-performing German footballers of his time.

Hirsch was at the height of his soccer career when World War I broke out. He fought for Germany in the war, but when he returned home, he was no longer accepted as a star athlete or war hero–he was treated as an enemy because he was Jewish.

In 1933 he was cut from the soccer club after the Nazis’ rise to power. Due to rising antisemitic measures, he
also divorced his non-Jewish wife in order to protect her and their children.

In March 3, 1943, Hirsch was deported to Auschwitz in German-occupied Poland. He wrote to his daughter while he was en route: “My dearest! I arrived safely, and everything is well! I am headed to Upper Silesia, which is still in Germany. Heartfelt greetings and kisses, your Juller!”

It is the last anyone heard from him. In 1950, the district court declared May 8, 1945, as the day of his death.
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

at the height of sth
(事業的)巔峰

Jewish: of or related to Jews

anti-Semitic 反猶太主義的,排猶主義的

en route 在路上;在途中

Heartfelt 衷心的,誠摯的


[ 本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-7-10 10:23 AM 編輯 ]






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感懷猶難,少捐紅十字會 ...

How were many Nazis able to escape postwar justice? One part of the answer lies in the choice by Red Cross officials to ignore information on the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) applications that should have raised red flags. This lack of scrutiny is illustrated well by the case of Herbert Bauer, a prominent and highly decorated officer in the Nazi Luftwaffe during the Second World War.

Title: Humanitarians at War
Author: Mr Gerald Steinacher
Publisher: Oxford University Press

Nazi 納粹黨人,納粹分子(1933至1945年間統治德國的國家社會黨黨員)

Committee (代表較大的組織決策或搜集資訊的)委員會

red flag (用作危險信號的)示警紅旗

scrutiny 細看,仔細審查

prominent 著名的;重要的

decorated 受到嘉獎的




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感懷猶難,少捐紅十字會 ...

How were many Nazis able to escape postwar justice? One part of the answer lies in the choice by Red Cross officials to ignore information on the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) applications that should have raised red flags. This lack of scrutiny is illustrated well by the case of Herbert Bauer, a prominent and highly decorated officer in the Nazi Luftwaffe during the Second World War.//

… Bauer would not disappoint the trust Hitler put in him and fought for his Fuhrer until the end of the Third Reich … With the help of local former SS officers, he crossed illegally into Italy in 1948 and applied for an ICRC travel document in Rome under his real name. Bauer had been born in the Austrian town of Innsbruck as he correctly stated, but in order to prove his alleged statelessness, he gave Czechoslovakian as his original nationality on the application form … Innsbruck … was nowhere near Czechoslovakia, a fact that ICRC officials in Rome would certainly have known. The Vatican Commission for Refugees nevertheless confirmed Bauer’s information. Bauer therefore had no problem emigrating to Argentina where he joined a large circle of former Luftwaffe and Nazi comrades, all of whom had obtained ICRC documents.

Title: Humanitarians at War
Author: Mr Gerald Steinacher
Publisher: Oxford University Press

disappoint (使)失望,(使)沮喪

alleged 被說成的

statelessness 無國籍

the Vatican 梵蒂岡

Commission(負責調查問題真相或原因的)委員會

nevertheless 不過,仍然;儘管如此

circle 圈子;集團;界;階層






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[隱藏]
感懷猶難,少捐紅十字會 ...

One of many other examples of the ICRC’s (the International Committee of the Red Cross) failure to investigate further applicants whose information should have raised questions is that of Austrian SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Hubert Karl Freisleben. In August 1947 Freisleben, born 1913 in Amstetten, Austria, completed an application for an ICRC travel document at the organization’s delegation in Rome. He presented himself as a Sudeten German Volksdeutscher who was now stateless. Freisleben used his real name and birth date, even including the fact that he had been born in Austria. The ‘chemist’ wanted to emigrate to the Dominican Republic or South America with his wife Gertrude and their two children. He confirmed his identity with a ‘Viennese driving license with photograph’ dated 3 August 1944. The Vatican Commission for Refugees in Rome supported his request with a letter of recommendation, but referred to him as a holder of German citizenship, a contradiction that in and of itself should have raised eyebrow. In reality, Dr Freisleben had been a hardcore Nazi.

Title: Humanitarians at War
Author: Mr Gerald Steinacher
Publisher: Oxford University Press

raise your eyebrows
揚起眉毛(表示驚訝)

[ 本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-8-5 08:53 PM 編輯 ]

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In reality, Dr Freisleben had been a hardcore Nazi. After the annexation of Austria, the doctor had become leader of the national socialist student organization for Southern Germany based in Vienna, and in February 1938 he had joined the SS. The SS Hauptsturmfuhrer was not merely an opportunist, for he had joined the Nazi Party as early as 1932. His reasons for emigration are unclear, perhaps he had to face denazification or the loss of his Austrian citizenship. In any case, he stated all his biographical data correctly, with one important exception: his Sudeten German background appears to have been completely invented. It would have been easy for IRO (the International Refugee Organization) screening teams to check his background because they used the same files as this author to establish the background of applicants. But even without a thorough screening, the case should have raised suspicion. Why would somebody born in Lower Austria suddenly turn into a Volksdeutscher from Czechoslovakia? The ICRC (the International Committee of the Red Cross) should have rejected cases such as this one in which it was blatantly apparent that the applicant was an Austrian or German citizen and not stateless, but it did not. As an Austrian citizen and former SS and Nazi Party member, Freisleben was very likely not allowed to travel abroad at all. By not checking the background of applicants, the ICRC made illegal emigration easy.

Title: Humanitarians at War
Author: Mr Gerald Steinacher
Publisher: Oxford University Press

annexation
(通常指用武力或擅自)吞併;兼併;強佔

opportunist 機會主義者,投機取巧者

citizenship 公民身份;公民資格

In any case 而且;再者

thorough 仔細的

blatantly 明目張膽地,公然地


[ 本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-8-5 08:54 PM 編輯 ]






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感懷猶難,少捐紅十字會 ...

The ICRC’s (the international Committee of the Red Cross) failure to investigate questionable information on applications for travel documents helps to explain in part how wanted men were able to escape justice. Another part of the explanation lay in the ICRC’s decision to use witnesses to establish an applicant’s identity, a convenient but corruptible system. The first, less detailed ICRC travel papers were called 10.100 forms. To receive a 10.100 document, all one needed were two witnesses to confirm one’s data. This made for a rapid turnover, but led to falsification on a large scale. Friendship and contacts were formed in POW camps, and people readily helped one another by confirming each other’s real or false identities. Consequently, no limits to potential abuse existed. All in all, then, questionable evidence and a procedure that was vulnerable to manipulation characterized the issuing of the early titres de voyage.

Title: Humanitarians at War
Author: Mr Gerald Steinacher
Publisher: Oxford University Press

questionable 不確定的;未必正確的;值得懷疑的

wanted(因犯罪)被警方通緝的

lie in sth 存在於;在於

witnesses 見證人;連署人

corruptible: able to be made to do something dishonest or immoral

falsification: the action of changing something, such as a  document, in order to deceive people

readily 迅速地;心甘情願地;輕而易舉地

abuse(尤指為個人私利而)濫用;妄用

vulnerable 易受傷的;易受影響(或攻擊)的;脆弱的

manipulation 操縱(為了個人利益而控制某人或某事,尤指利用不公平或不誠實的方式)

issuing 發行;發布;頒發






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感懷猶難,少捐紅十字會 ...

The whole casual procedure of confirming identity with witnesses and issuing travel papers is illustrated clearly by the example of Austrian SS officer Hermann Duxneuner. Duxneuner was an engineer and had joined the SS in June 1937. He belonged to the hardcore Nazi leadership of western Austria and was in charge of ‘de-judaization’ there. On his 1939 CV he stated: ‘After the [Nazi] takeover I joined the economic office, and I am in charge of the Aryanization of the Tyrol Gau.’ In other words, he was in charge of the systematic plundering and stealing of Jewish property in the region. SS Unterscharfuhrer Duxneuner also provided lists of Jews to be assaulted and murdered during the 1938 November pogrom in the Austrian city of Innsbruck. At the end of the war, he went into hiding in northern Italy. As early as December 1946, Duxneuner applied for a 10.100 travel document in order to emigrate to ‘Holland or Brazil’.

Title: Humanitarians at War
Author: Mr Gerald Steinacher
Publisher: Oxford University Press

casual
不在意的;不放在心上的;漫不經心的

hardcore: used to describe people who strongly believe in something


the leadership 領導人員;領導層

systematic 有條理的,有系統的,有計劃的

plundering(尤指戰爭期間的)掠奪,搶劫,劫掠

lists 名單,目錄;清單

be assaulted (被) 毆打;襲擊,攻擊

pogrom(種族或宗教)大屠殺,集體殺戮

emigrate 移居外國;移民




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感懷猶難,少捐紅十字會 ...

Duxneuner used his real name, described himself as a ‘former Austrian’ who was now stateless, and gave his profession as engineer. His stateless status was probably real, for he may indeed have lost his Austrian citizenship because of his Nazi past. Authorities of the postwar Austrian Republic often denied the re-admission to the country’s citizenship to hardcore Nazis. This was particularly true for leaders of the illegal Nazi movement in Austria before the Anschluss in 1938. Many of them had fled Austria for Germany after an attempted Nazi putsch in 1934. These actions were seen as high treason by the Austrian government, and the citizenship of such Nazis was revoked and not automatically reinstated after 1945. Suspicions about the accuracy of his application would have been well founded, but in any case ICRC (the International Committee of the Red Cross) delegate Hans de Salis signed Duxneuner’s papers personally. Duxneuner even presented a letter of recommendation from the Vatican to support his application for a ‘passport of the International Red Cross’.

Title: Humanitarians at War
Author: Mr Gerald Steinacher
Publisher: Oxford University Press

putsch
政變;起義;暴動

treason 叛國(罪)

was revoked ( 被 ) 撤銷;廢除;解除

delegate (尤指會議的)代表


[ 本帖最後由 騰杰 於 2018-8-19 11:33 AM 編輯 ]

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[隱藏]
感懷猶難,少捐紅十字會 ...

With his identity now firmly established and travel papers in his hands, Duxneuner could now vouch for others. While in the Fossoli di Carpi camp, a former Nazi concentration camp turned refugee and internment camp for stateless foreigners, Duxneuner appeared as one of three witnesses for a 10.100 travel document confirming the identity of a certain Kurt Baum, a former member of the elite SS Leibstandarte ‘Adolf Hitler’. SS Unterscharfuhrer Baum was from Danzig, a city that became part of postwar Poland. Like so many Nazi and SS officers, Baum and Duxneuner stated their names, birth places, and birth dates correctly, so it would have been easy to double check the background of these men. But the former SS officers had no screening or checks to fear. Thanks to Red Cross documents, Baum and Duxneuner could emigrate to Argentina.

Title: Humanitarians at War
Author: Mr Gerald Steinacher
Publisher: Oxford University Press

vouch for sth/ sb 為…擔保;保證

concentration camp 集中營

an internment camp 拘留營

double check 複核,複查

https://global.oup.com/academic/product/humanitarians-at-war-9780198704935?cc=hk&lang=en

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