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[其他] PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?


轉載Russian society has had years of turbulence that produced decreased birth rates and increased mortality rates, especially among Russia’s men ... by 2012 the 1.7 births per Russian woman, although slightly higher than previously (thanks to numbers from non-Russian republics like Chechnya, Dagestan, and Tuva), was still 20 percent below replacement level. Birth rates are not that different from European norms, but statistics on mortality rates are striking. The lack of adequate medical care produces FIVE TIMES MORE deaths from cardiovascular disease among women in PUTIN'S Russia than in Europe. MORE Russian women DIE annually FROM DOMESTIC VIOLENCE than the number of soldiers the USSR lost in the entire Afghan war, For Russian men, the situation is even grimmer. Poor workplace and road safety standards, plus high rates of suicide and homicide combine with the negative health effects of high alcohol consumption to make life especially precarious for Russian men. According to the World Health Organization, the life expectancy of a fifteen-year-old male is three years lower in Russia than in Haiti. Added to these demographic maladies are the MILLIONS of Russians, mainly GIRLS, had LOST to sex TRAFFICKING. Russia’s compliance with international conventions on human trafficking declined for nine straight years, and in 2013 the U.S. State Department finally gave Russia’s compliance the lowest ranking possible, below Rwanda.


Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha

precarious (情勢)不穩定的,不確定的,危險的


compliance 服從;遵守;依從

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-8-6 12:53 PM 編輯 ]

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轉載These statistics are directly affected by corruption. When the health budget is raided and stolen, funds dry up for neonatal care, medicines to treat cancer, public health campaigns against HIV and drug-resistant tuberculosis, and improved emergency response. Russian committed to building its first eight-bed women’s shelter in St. Petersburg, but by 2013 it STILL had NOT opened. Despite receiving $1.6 trillion from oil and gas exports from 2000 to 2011, Russian was NOT able to build a single multi-lane highway during this time. There is still NO interstate highway linking Moscow to the Far East; in contrast, China, has built 4,360 miles of modern highways annually for the last ten years – equivalent to two times around the circumference of the earth. The German-Russian Nord Stream (headed by Matthias Warnig, with Gerhard Schroder on the board) gas pipeline agreement signed in 2005 called for the construction of two pipelines linking Russian and Germany via deep sea routes, bypassing troublesome states in central Europe. When the first pipeline was completed in July 2010, it was revealed that the construction cost was 2.1 million euros per kilometer on the German side and 5.8 MILLION EUROS – THREE TIMES HIGHER – on the RUSSIAN SIDE. MORE THAN HALF of the $50 BILLION spent on the Sochi Olympics SIMPLY DISAPPEARED into the pockets of PUTIN’S CRONIES, according to detailed analyses by multiple Russian experts. Forbes Russia reported that over the two years prior to Sochi, when the ROTENBERG BROTHERS (PUTIN’S childhood friends and judo partners) RECEIVED 15 PERCENT of ALL the CONTRACTS for the OLYMPICS, the $2.5 BILLION INCREASE in their personal wealth was achieved at the SAME time that the state announced it would CUT HEALTH SPENDING by 8.7 PERCENT in 2013 and UP TO 17.8 PERCENT by 2015.


Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha


committed to 承諾,保證;(使)忠於;(使)致力於;投入(時間或金錢)

CRONIES (尤指願意提供或接受不正當幫助的當權者的)親朋好友,親信,密友

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:04 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載... but Russian economy is profoundly hamstrung by the relative lack of technological innovation. Despite the enormous reserve of talent in applied and theoretical sciences, Russia took home ONLY 0.2 percent of the 1.3 million overseas patents awarded since 2000 by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, lagging behind the state of Alabama in total annual awards. Under the Patent Cooperation Treaty the number of Russian applications per university graduate was THIRTY-FIVE TIMES LOWER THAN Austria's. The inability of well-trained young graduates to succeed as entrepreneurs and innovators in Russia has stimulated emigration and plans to emigrate. In 2011, during the more liberal Medvedev presidency, an online poll of 7,237 Novaya gazeta readers (what one might consider a microcosm of the country's educated, informed, and opposition-minded elite) found that 62 percent were considering leaving Russia, the vast majority being under thirty-five, city dwellers, and fluent in a foreign language -- a group that should be regarded as the cream of any country's population. Commenting on the results, the poll's author, Mr Dmitriy Oreshkin, stated that this wave of Russian emigration is different from others in the past in that these young people could STILL come back because they are alienated from the regime, NOT the country: "If and when Russia will begin to comply with general law, and NOT ONLY the rules of KGB corporation, and accordingly there will be opportunities for self-realization, these people will return. They hated to leave. But here (in Russia), they have nowhere to go, nothing to do, and nothing to hope for. For the last ten years, Russia has become a country ONLY for those who are either the chief or a fool. And the transition from one category to another depends NOT on personal ability, BUT EXCLUSIVELY on LOYALTY (to PUTIN) ." Ms Masha Gessen reported that the 2014 Ukraine events and the tightening of the domestic political noose SO impacted educated Muscosvites' SENSE of HOPELESSNESS that the new question was not whether or when to leave BUT "WHICH MONTH?"


Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha



patents 專利權

microcosm 縮影;微觀世界

city dwellers 城市居民

the cream of sth …的精華;…的精英

are alienated from 被格格不入;被疏遠

chief  領導人;首領;頭目;酋長



noose 問題;束縛,羈絆

impact (對…)產生影響

Muscovite 莫斯科人

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:08 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載This degradation of the socioeconomic situation was created by the political elite. When Transparency International announced in 2013 that Russia ranked 127th out of 177 countries in the level of corruption reported by respondents, and when the Russian think tank Indem (Information Science for Democracy Fund) estimated already in 2005 that the amount paid annually in bribes is roughly equal to the size of the Russian budget, at approximately $300 billion, it is fair to compare Russia with other super-corrupt countries. Looking only at one other major oil exporter, Nigeria, we see they are both near the bottom in the corruption perception index (see below).

Comparison of Russia's and Nigeria's Corruption and Human Development Indices:

Corruption Perceptions Index
Nigeria 144/ 177 Very corrupt
Russia 127/ 177 Very Corrupt

Control of Corruption Score
Nigeria - .99
Russia -1.07 Control of corruption worse in Russia than Nigeria

Bribe Payers Index
Nigeria n/a
Russia 28/ 28 Last place among wealthiest countries

Human Development Index (HDI)
Nigeria 153/ 185 Low
Russia 55/ 185 High


Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha


socioeconomic 社會經濟的;社會經濟地位(不同)的

elite (社會)上層集團;掌權人物;出類拔萃的人,精英

Transparency International 透明國際

respondents 回答者;答覆者;應答者

think tank 智囊團

bribes 賄賂

corrupt 貪贓舞弊的;以權謀私的;腐敗的



n/a 不適用的(用於表格中,表示某項問題不適合回答)

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:13 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載Note: The Corruption Perceptions Index ranks countries based on how corrupt a country's public sector is perceived to be, based on expert and business surveys. The higher the number, the more corrupt the country is perceived to be by officials and experts in that country. The Control of Corruption score ranges from -2.5 to 2.5. Lower values correspond to worse governance outcomes. The Bribe Payers Index ranks the world's wealthiest countries according to the likelihood that their own firms will pay bribes abroad. Nigeria was not rich enough to be part of this cohort. Russia finished last. The Human Development Index is a composite measure of indicators along three dimensions: life expectancy, educational attainment, and command over the resources needed for a decent living.

Sources: United Nations, Human Development Report (United Nations Development Programme 2013); Transparency International, Country Reports for Nigeria and Russia (Transparency International 2013).

Both countries also rank low in the control of corruption, although shockingly the UN ranks Nigeria slightly better than Russia at controlling corruption. However, Russia ranks high in the Human Development Index, while Nigeria is low. This suggests that the country's slide into the abyss cannot be blamed on the Russian population. They have more than sufficient capabilities, as measured by the level of education and other socioeconomic indicators, to make substantial progress, but they are persistently hampered by elite predation that has dragged down economic growth, increased wealth inequality, and inhibited political freedoms.


Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha

cohort (social science)
有共同特點 (通常指年齡)的一群人

composite (由不同部分組成的)混合物,合成物,綜合體

life expectancy (尤指人的)預期壽命

attainment 實現;獲得;贏得

command over 指揮;控制;管轄

decent 正派的;體面的,正經的;像樣的,相當不錯的

abyss 險境,絕境

substantial 大的;可觀的;價值巨大的;重大的

be hampered (被) 阻礙,妨礙

predation: the fact that an animal hunts, kills, and eats other animals

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:15 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載It is a tragedy for Russia's talented population that the actions of their leaders (Yeltsin & Putin) have stymied development to the extent that they should be compared with much less developed countries. And average Russians know this. Transparency International's 2013 survey found that 77 percent of Russian respondents considered their government's anticorruption policies ineffective or very ineffective; 85 percent said that their government was run by a few big entities acting in their own best interests; 92 percent responded that corruption is a major problem in the public sector; and 89 percent felt that corruption in Russia had either stayed the same or gotten worse in the prior two years.

When PUTIN gained the presidency a third time, in 2012, PUTIN'S first actions were not to reach out to those in society who might participate in the modernization of the country. Rather PUTIN cracked down on the freedoms required to build a civil society and an economy based on performance, not connections. The NONPROFIT sector was hit hard, with NEW laws requiring them to register as "foreign agents"; ordinary middle-class demonstrators with NO previous record were imprisoned after the May 2012 Bolotnaya protests against electoral fraud; and NEW restrictions on the Internet threatened to completely eliminate the press freedoms that had largely already BEEN driven from mainstream newspapers and television.


Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha


entities 實體


reach out to 願意傾聽

cracked down on 嚴厲打擊

electoral fraud 選舉欺騙

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:18 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載The silver lining in the 2000s was that wealth from oil and gas flowed into Russia in staggering amounts, increasing from $30 billion in 1995 to approximately $175 billion annually only a decade later. HOWEVER, a study by the former deputy minister of energy Mr Vladimir Milov (who was obliged to resign after the study's release) showed that the imposition of state control and its concomitant lack of transparency gradually eroded efficiency and profitability even in the bloated energy sector. Under such circumstances, it can be expected that prices and inefficiencies will increase, since rents and bribes become part of the cost of doing business, and inefficiency is not punished by the market, as the state protects and promotes this behavior. Preferential treatment of some firms over others and some sectors over others makes market entry for new firms more difficult, suppresses the desire or need for innovation as a way of gaining market share, and reinforces the tendency to invest in traditional and economically "reliable" sectors over other sectors that might promote the country's modernization but only in the long run.


Author: Professor Karen Dawisha
Publisher: Simon & Schuster


annually 一年一度;每年

deputy 代理人;副職,副手

minister 部長;大臣

be obliged 被迫做某事;必須做某事;只好做某事

imposition (新法律或體系的)實施

concomitant 同時發生的事;伴隨物

transparency 透明性,透明

eroded 削弱;逐步破壞

profitability: the situation in which a company, product, etc. is producing a profit

bloated 過於龐大的;富有的

Preferential 優先的;優待的,優惠的

suppresses 抑制,忍住,壓抑;查禁

innovation 新觀念;新方法;(新觀念或方法的)創造,使用

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:19 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載While PUTIN uses the revenues from oil and gas to fund large capital projects, from the multiple state residences to the Sochi Olympics, or allows his cronies to take it abroad, the population must contribute significantly to the budget through a combination of income taxes, high valued-added taxes and high duties on imported consumer goods. But the population also contributes a "tax" by paying bribes. Instead of cracking down on corruption, the state uses bribes both to feed the venality of the elites and as a way to supplement the insufficient salaries of low-paid workers. Instead of paying them from state coffers, the state allows low-level civil servants to supplement their meager incomes with petty bribes. This constitutes an additional tax on the population and a drag on the economy's overall efficiency. Over the long term this "corruption effect," equivalent to $2,000 per Russian and equal to the size of the Russian budget, can only slow economic growth and increase popular resentment, including among civil servants who feel degraded by the system. One policeman, Mr Aleksey Dumovskiy, appealed on You Tube to PUTIN to do something to stop systemic corruption in which police had to meet their financial quotas from their bosses, leading them to "detect non-existent crimes and imprison people who are not guilty." He was immediately arrested on fraud and corruption charges. What he failed to understand is that everyone in Russia, except PUTIN, has to meet a quota.


Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha


residences 住所;住房;宅第

cronies (尤指願意提供或接受不正當幫助的當權者的)親朋好友,親信,密友

duties 稅;(尤指進口)關稅

cracking down on 制裁;處罰;打擊;鎮壓

venal (人)貪贓的,腐敗的,見利忘義的

supplement 增加,補充,增補

coffers (某一組織的帳戶中可使用的)資金,金庫

petty 瑣碎的;無足輕重的

constitutes 形成;構成;組成

be a drag on sb/sth 拖累,成爲…的累贅

degraded 貶低;降低…的身份;侮辱…的人格

quotas 定額,限額,配額

fraud 詐騙(罪)

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:21 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載In 2014 Freedom House continued to negatively assess political rights and civil liberties in Russia that had started to slide as soon as PUTIN became president in 2000.

Freedom: 4.5 (1999); 5.0 (2002); 5.5 (2006); 5.5 (2010); 5.5 (2014)

Civil Liberties: 5 (1999-2014)

Political Rights: 4 (1999); 5 (2002); 6 (2006); 6 (2010); 6 (2014)

Status: Partly Free (1999-2002); Not Free (2006-2014)

Notes: The ratings are based on a scale of 1 to 7, with 1 representing the highest level of democratic progress and 7 the lowest. Each score is an average of ratings for the subcategories tracked in a given year.

|Source: Freedom House (2014).


Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

assess 評價;評定;對…估價

civil liberties 公民自由

ratings 等級,級別;程度

tracked (被) 追蹤,記錄…的進展


[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:23 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載This steady deterioration obviously did NOT come about accidentally BUT was the product of willful planning and steady execution from within the political elite. The rules governing elections have BEEN changed bit by bit to become LESS inclusive of NON-Kremlin-backed parties since PUTIN came to power. Alternative centers of power, whether parties, regions, or elites, have BEEN relentlessly attacked and weakened. The media and the public space in general have become LESS and LESS tolerant of the free expression of ideas.


Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha

willful 故意的;任性的;固執的

execution (尤指有計劃的) 實行,履行,表演

elite (社會) 上層集團;掌權人物;出類拔萃的人,精英

inclusive (團體或組織) 可以包容各種人的

Kremlin 克裡姆林宮;俄羅斯政府

Alternative 非傳統的;另類的

relentlessly 持續嚴厲地;持續強烈地

tolerant 忍受;容忍

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:25 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載An INCREASE in the sense of political hopelessness on the part of the VAST majority occurred at the SAME time that Moscow vied with New York and London as the billionaire capital of the world. (Some of the New York and London billionaires were originally from Russia.) In many countries the gap between rich and poor has grown in the past decades, BUT in PUTIN’S Russia the gap is WIDEST and the percentage of Russia’s wealth owned by the richest was the LARGEST: 110 individuals, including PUTIN’S cronies, control a staggering 35 percent of Russia’s wealth. Average household wealth has risen sevenfold since 2000, from $ 1,650 in 2000 to $ 11,900 in 2013, which might sound fabulous, BUT in 2013 median (midpoint) wealth in PUTIN’S Russia was ONLY $871: that is, 50 percent of adults in PUTIN'S Russia had total household wealth of $871 or lower. This was compared with median wealth of $ 90,252 in Canada -- with roughly the same population size and latitude as PUTIN’S Russia, or $ 1,040 for India, which has a population almost ten times larger than Russia’s and is an importer not exporter of oil.


Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha

hopelessness 沒希望

vie 競爭;爭奪

cronies (尤指願意提供或接受不正當幫助的當權者的) 親朋好友,親信,密友

staggering 驚人的,令人震驚的

household 一家人;一戶;家庭

sevenfold: seven times as big or as much

fabulous 極好的;絕佳的

latitude 緯度

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:27 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載】PUTIN'S police is considered part of a separate army branch maintained by the Minister of the Interior. It routinely comes up in the "Top 10 MOST Corrupt Police Forces" in the world list compiled by Transparency International. Russian people DON'T disagree: According to Levada Center, an independent polling entity. Russians consider the GIBDD road police to be the MOST corrupt institution in the country, leaving behind the police proper and institution of higher education, the next largest category.

Russia: PUTIN'S Playground (Empire, Revolution and the New Tsar)

Author: Ms Anastasia Edel (a recipient of the British government Chevening Award)

the Minister of the Interior

compiled by ... (被) ... 匯編;編纂;編輯;編製

Transparency International: an international organization that fights against corruption

polling 進行民意調查的

entity 實體;獨立存在體

institution (大學、銀行等) 機構,團體

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:28 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載】In 2015, World Justice Project ranked Russia 75th out of 102 surveyed countries in terms of rule of law. When looking at the reason behind this rating, a critical Russian concept to understand is that of proizvol, literally "unchecked will." It is a type of rule that canNOT BE tempered by laws, as they are routinely circumvented or ignored; nor by accountability, the weak mechanisms for which are mired in layers of bureaucracy; nor by legitimate opposition, as it is marginalized and systematically silenced. "There’s NO truth in the world,” goes a Russian saying.

Russia: PUTIN'S Playground (Empire, Revolution and the New Tsar)

Author: Ms Anastasia Edel (a recipient of the British government Chevening Award)

in terms of/ in ... terms

rule of law 法治;法律

rating 等級,級別;程度

literally 名副其實地,按字面含義來講

unchecked (有害物) 未受約束的,不受限制的,放任的

temper 使緩和;使變溫和;使變淡

be circumvented (尤指巧妙或非法地) 逃避,規避,繞過

nor 也不,也沒有

accountability: a situation in which someone is responsible for things that happen and can give a satisfactory reason for them

be/ become mired (down) in sth (被) 深陷 … 中

bureaucracy 官僚作風;官僚主義;官僚體制

legitimate 合法的,正當的,法律允許的

marginalize (被) 邊緣化;忽視;排斥

silence 使安靜;使沈默

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:28 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載】According to Mr Kolesnikov, the scheme worked like this: PUTIN had stipulated that 35 per cent of the funds for URGENTLY needed medical equipment would be held in PUTIN'S and HIS cronies offshore accounts. For example, of the $20 million that the original donor Mr Roman Abramovich gave to help the hospitals, Petromed ONLY spent $130 million, with the remainder ending up in a PUTIN'S Swiss bank account. Mr Kolesnikov says that Mr Abramovich was blind to where the money went. By 2005, the fund had accumulated over $200 million and a firm called Rosinvest of which PUTIN held 94 per cent of the shares was created.

FRAGILE EMPIRE: How Russia fell in and out of love with Vladimir PUTIN

Author: Mr Ben Judah (He is currently a visiting fellow at the European Stability Initiative. His work has been featured in the Financial Times, the Economist, Prospect, Standpoint, and Foreign Policy.)



cronies (尤指願意提供或接受不正當幫助的當權者的) 親朋好友,親信,密友

offshore (公司或銀行) 境外的,海外的

be blind to sth 沒有注意到…;對…視而不見

shares 股票;股份

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-20 03:30 PM 編輯 ]

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轉載Perhaps the MOST surprising of the trends is the increase in the number of entrepreneurs arrested and imprisoned on tax evasion and other charges as part of a large-scale increase in the use of the PUTIN'S corrupt criminal justice system as a vehicle for corporate raiding by regime insiders. In the ten years from 2002 to 2012, hundreds of thousands of businessmen were actually imprisoned, not just questioned or arrested, primarily as a result of rivals, paying corrupt police, prosecutors, and judges to put away their competitors. Russian businessmen increasingly kept their money safe abroad, stimulating capital flight. Despite appointment of an ombudsman for business rights in 2012, PUTIN'S decision to proceed with the 2010 second trial of Mr Mikhayl Khodorkovskiy on TRUMPED-UP charges that EVEN the head of the Moscow Bar Association said were a "disgrace to justice" ONLY added to this lack of business confidence. Efforts by the new ombudsman, Mr Boris Titov, to amnesty the 111,000 entrepreneurs who remained in prison in 2013 foundered on the Duma's insistence that NO one amnestied could go free without paying damages or returning stolen property. However since MOST of the imprisoned claimed to have BEEN framed by PUTIN's cronies and refused to pay what they said amounted to a further shakedown, ALL BUT 2,300 remained in prison.


Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha

entrepreneurs (尤指涉及風險的)企業家,創業者

imprisoned (被) 關押,囚禁

tax evasion (非法)逃稅

vehicle (實現、產生或表達…的)方法,手段,媒介

corporate (大)公司的

raiding (警方)突擊檢查,突然搜查

insider 內部的人,知情人,瞭解內幕者

rivals 競爭對手;敵手

prosecutors 檢察官;公訴人

put sb away 將(某人)送進監獄

stimulating 激發,激勵;促進

capital flight: a situation in which large amounts of money are sent out of a country to be kept or invested in other countries, for example, because of fears about the economy

ombudsman (政府或大型機構處理投訴的)民意調查官,巡視官,申訴專員

proceed with 繼續進行,繼續做

trump sth up 捏造(罪名),假造(罪證以陷害他人)

the Bar 律師界,司法界,法律界

be a disgrace to sb/ sth 是…的恥辱

amnesty (對政治犯的)赦免,大赦

foundered on (被) 失敗;破產

been framed (被) 陷害,誣陷

crony (尤指願意提供或接受不正當幫助的當權者的)親朋好友,親信,密友

amount to sth 等於;意味著

shakedown 勒索,敲詐

ALL BUT 幾乎,差不多

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 11:29 AM 編輯 ]

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