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[世界歷史] BLOOD OIL: TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES that RUN the WORLD



BLOOD OIL: TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES that RUN the WORLD

[隱藏]
【轉載】What interests us here are the negatives in Western political support for the SAUDI regime. Many will think of the Arab oil embargo of 1973; what we will highlight is the more consequential SAUDI support of FUNDAMENTALIST Islam worldwide. A crucial year in this story is 1979, a pivot at which much in world history turned. The Soviets invaded Afghanistan, pushing the Cold War deeper into the Muslim world. Religious extremists overthrew the Shah in Iran, scaring the Saudi royals that the same fate might await them. Most dramatically, homegrown SAUDI FUNDAMENTALISTS captured the Grand Mosque, the heart of the Muslim faith which the royals are meant to defend. The militants were dislodged only after a bloody commando raid that left the mosque -- which holds the holiest place in Islam -- damaged and defiled.

BLOOD OIL: TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES that RUN the WORLD


Author: Professor Mr Leif Wenar
Publisher: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

consequential
意義重大的

FUNDAMENTALIST 原教旨主義的

pivot 核心

Shah
沙(舊時伊朗統治者的稱號)

royals
王室成員homegrown 本國的;土生土長的

FUNDAMENTALISTS
原教旨主義

Grand

were dislodged  被逐出

commando
突擊隊(隊員)

defiled
遭到了褻瀆

TYRANTS
暴君;暴虐的人;專橫的人

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-22 09:26 AM 編輯 ]



實用相關搜尋: MBA

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【轉載】The year 1979 was a great crisis for SAUDI regime. The SAUDI royals' legitimacy had always rested on their leadership of the SAUDI religious community and on the endorsement of its ultraconservative clerics. Now it seemed that the royals were in danger of being swept away by a populist fundamentalist revival consuming the region. The king's response was to outflank and co-opt the radicals. The regime had already been using its large post-1973 oil rents to bolster its reactionary religious establishment at home, and to empower that establishment to spread the faith abroad. Now it doubled down on that strategy.

BLOOD OIL: TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES that RUN the WORLD

Author: Professor Mr Leif Wenar
Publisher: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

SAUDI: belonging to or relating to Saudi Arabia or its people 沙烏地阿拉伯人/沙烏地阿拉伯的

legitimacy 合法性

rest on 以 ... 為基礎

endorsement 認可

ultra- 極其

clerics 神職人員

being swept away 被消滅

populist 平民主義的

revival 再流行

consuming 吞噬

outflank (尤指在政冶上) 出奇制勝

co-opt (經所有成員同意) 增選 ... 為成員

bolster 改進

reactionary: very strongly oppose to any social and political change 反動的

establishment 機構

empower 授權

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-24 11:24 AM 編輯 ]






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【轉載】The SAUDI regime sprayed out petrodollars to spread Islamic FUNDAMENTALISM worldwide. Mosques, schools, "study centers" -- one American think tank estimates that the SAUDIS spent MORE than $70 billion in a decade-and-a-half campaign to build institutions across Asia, Africa, and Europe. Here young Muslims learned Salafism, the creed that Muslims everywhere should live according to the Islam of the seventh century, including its seventh-century laws about the punishment of crimes and the treatment of women. Young Muslims were also taught the religious duty of jihad. "With a population equal to ONLY 1 percent of Muslims worldwide, SAUDI ARABIA funded MORE than 90 percent of the faith's costs, and these expenditures constituted the MOST expensive information campaign ever mounted."

Author: Professor Mr Leif Wenar
Publisher: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

SAUDI: belonging to or relating to Saudi Arabia or its people
沙烏地阿拉伯人/沙烏地阿拉伯的

petrodollars: money earned by the sale of oil 石油美元

fundamentalism (穆斯林) 原教旨主義

Mosques 清真寺

think tank 智囊團

campaign 政治運動

institutions 社會福利機構 (常含貶義)

creed 信條

jihad (伊斯蘭教的) 聖戰

expenditures 開支 (額)

constitued 構成

mounted 開展




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轉載】The SAUDI royals' strategy of promoting Salafism at home and worldwide worked insofar as it resolved their domestic crisis and stabilized their regime. The SAUDI regime's support for this pan-Islamic ideology incited thousands of young Muslims to go off to fight the godless Soviets in Afghanistan (a fight the Saudis and Americans took on in close coordination), and it encouraged many SAUDIS privately to support young men prosecuting VIOLENT jihads in Afghanistan and then around the world. The SAUDIS were impressed by the success of their ideological campaign. SAUDI-funded mosques and fighters rooted down in Pakistan, sprung up in the Caucasus, further balkanized the Balkans. Oil money empowered the SAUDIS to spread a MEDIEVAL understanding of Islam all over the world.

BLOOD OIL: TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES that RUN the WORLD

Author: Professor Mr Leif Wenar
Publisher: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

insofar as 到 … 的程度

resolved 解 (問題、困難)

pan-: including all people

incited sb to do sth 煽動

go off to do sth 離開

prosecuting 繼續 (做某事)

sprung up 使突然出現

balkanized 使巴爾幹化 (指把國家分裂成幾個獨立的小國, 含貶義)

empowered 使控制局面

MEDIEVAL 中世紀 (約西元600年至1500年間) 的,中古時代的






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[隱藏]
轉載The SAUDI regime has cracked down on the jihadis at home and on some "charities" that support them abroad, but SAUDIS continue to fund armed EXTREMIST groups through private donations that the regime is unable, or UNWILLING, to stop.

... As Ms Rachel Bronson says, "... Rather, Islamic radicals have been created and cultivated by political leaders for political ends."

The SAUDI royals, to solidify their rule, financed the spread of FUNDAMENTALIST Islamic theology worldwide. That theology is not identical to the extremist jihadi theology, but it is one root from which it grew. When the US president addressed the UN in 2014 and encouraged Muslims to give up the ideology of Islamic State, he was in fact warning them away from Wahhabism -- the version of Salafism that is the official religion of both Islamic State and the SAUDI state.

BLOOD OIL: TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES that RUN the WORLD

Author: Professor Mr Leif Wenar
Publisher: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

crack down
制裁;處罰;打擊;鎮壓

jihadi: a Muslim who is fighting for Islam, especially a radical ( = someone with extreme views) who believes in using violence to achieve religious and political aims

fundamentalist: someone who believes that the rules of their religion should be followed exactly

theology 神學,宗教信仰學;宗教信仰



熱門搜尋: service apartments 銀行估價 裝修設計

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TRUMP 出售一千億美元美軍武器予沙烏地阿拉伯,這其實代表甚麽呢 ?

On the afternoon of May 1, President TRUMP’S son-in-law, Jared KUSHNER, welcomed a high-level delegation of SAUDIS to a gilded reception room next door to the White House and delivered a brisk pep talk: “Let’s get this done today.”

KUSHNER was referring to a $100 BILLION-plus arms deal that TRUMP'S administration hoped to seal with SAUDI ARABIA in time to announce it during TRUMP’S visit to the kingdom this weekend.
son-in-law 女婿

delegation 代表團

gilded 鍍金的;有金色塗層的;塗成金色的

brisk 輕快的,生氣勃勃的

pep talk 鼓舞士氣的談話,激勵性談話

arms  武器;軍火;軍備

seal 確認,正式批准(協定)

in time 及早,及時


https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/18/world/middleeast/jared-kushner-saudi-arabia-arms-deal-lockheed.html

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-25 12:48 PM 編輯 ]






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More than 7,600 people have been killed and 42,000 injured since March 2015, the majority in air strikes by a SAUDI-led multinational coalition that backs the Yemeni president.

The conflict and a blockade imposed by the SAUDI-led coalition have also triggered a humanitarian disaster, leaving 70% of the population in need of aid.

By 26 March 2017, at least 4,773 civilians had been killed and 8,272 others injured, according to the United Nations. With just under half of the population under the age of 18, children constituted a third of all civilian deaths during the first two years of the conflict.

The destruction of civilian infrastructure and restrictions on food and fuel imports have also pushed Yemen to the brink of famine.

Some 17 million people are considered food insecure and 6.8 million severely food insecure.

About 3.3 million children and pregnant or breast-feeding women are acutely malnourished, including 462,000 children under five who face severe acute malnutrition.

The UN says 2 million Yemenis are internally displaced and 180,000 others have fled the country. Only 45% of the 3,500 health facilities surveyed by the UN in November were fully functioning.
airstrike 空襲;空中打擊

-led 計劃好的;控制的

coalition (不同政黨或不同群體的人為特定目標而暫時形成的)聯盟,同盟,聯合體

Yemeni 葉門的/葉門人

blockade 封鎖

imposed (被) 推行;強制實行

triggered 引起,引發(壞事)

humanitarian 人道主義的

civilian 平民;老百姓

the United Nations 聯合國(於1945年成立的國際組織,旨在以和平方式解決世界性的問題)

constitute 形成;構成;組成

restriction 受(尤指官方)限制的,受約束的

brink (事情發生的)邊緣;始發點

famine 饑荒;饑荒時期

insecure(局勢)無保障的,不穩定的

severely 嚴重地

breast-feed: (of a mother) to feed a baby with milk from her breasts

malnourished 營養不良的

be displaced  (被)迫使…離開常居地(或原位)


http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29319423


[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-25 01:31 PM 編輯 ]






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轉載】Now, in the twenty-first century, the West finds itself attacked by an ideology whose goal is to remodel the world’s politics to conform as closely as possible to the convictions of seventh-century desert tribesmen. Many adherents to this ideology believe it is rational to kill Westerners as part of an effort to bring down all Enlightenment institutions worldwide, and even Westerners who know nothing about jihadi Salafism are forced to spend their tax dollars and time because of the expensive measures (military campaigns, security in cities and airports) that the West has taken against this threat. Jihadi Salafism is so alien to modernity that efforts to resist it are unlikely to bring welcome reforms at home. Rather, the struggle against jihadi Salafism has so far mostly meant increased powers of secret surveillance and state coercion within Western countries, which enlightened defenders of individual freedom and democratic accountability will view with great dismay.

The jahadi Salafist threat was NOT inevitable; there was NO necessity that the West would be "balanced" by Islamic medievalism ...

This threat is not just a historical anomaly: a black swan flying a black flag. Many elements combine to explain the origins and growth of jihadi Salafism, including Western political support for its long-time Saudi ally, the yearnings of young Muslims worldwide for more opportunities and recognition, and the encouragement of extremism from other Gulf oil states like Qatar, Kuwait, and the UAE. Still, one crucial factor was that Saudi regime chose to strengthen itself by spending from its massive petrorevenues to imprint Salafist ideology more deeply on its own people and, along with its own people, to fund Salafist schools, preachers, and soldiers throughout the world. Because of effectiveness for resources, the world's consumers unwittingly gave Saudi Arabia the financial backing to spread extremism for decades on a world-historical scale. The Global JIHADI Movement that we NOW see would NOT exist WITHOUT that SAUDI OIL money.

BLOOD OIL: TYRANTS, VIOLENCE, and the RULES that RUN the WORLD

Author: Professor Mr Leif Wenar
Publisher: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

remodel
改變…的形狀(或外觀);重新塑造

conform 順從;遵從;隨大流,順應習俗

convictions 堅定的看法;堅定的信念;堅定的信仰

tribesmen 部落男子;部族男子

adherents 信徒,追隨者,擁護者

rational 頭腦清醒的;理智的

Enlightenment 智慧

institutions 機構,團體

jihadi: a Muslim who is fighting for Islam, especially a radical ( = someone with extremeviews) who believes in using violence to

achieve religious and political aims

alien 怪異的;截然不同的;不熟悉的

surveillance (尤指員警或軍隊的)監視,盯梢

coercion 強迫,逼迫

enlightened 有見識的;開明的;擺脫偏見的

accountability: a situation in which someone is responsible for things that happen and can give a satisfactory reason for them

dismay 沮喪,灰心,失望

inevitable 不可避免的;必然發生的

anomaly 異常的人(或事物);不規則;(同一種類中的)畸形

swan 天鵝

yearnings 渴望,期盼,渴求

extremism 偏激的觀點;極端主義

The Gulf states include Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the UAE. 海灣國家包括伊朗、伊拉克、沙烏地阿拉伯、科威特、巴林、阿曼、卡塔爾以及阿拉伯聯合酋長國。

petrorevenue (政府的) 石油稅收,石油歲入;(公司的) 石油收益

imprint 銘刻,使銘記

preachers 傳道士

unwittingly 不知情地;無意地

backing 支持,援助;(尤指) 資助

extremism 偏激的觀點;極端主義

Many thanks for scrupulous attention !


[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-27 03:43 PM 編輯 ]




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