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[其他] PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?



[隱藏]
轉載】PUTIN'S Home: Gazprom

In order to assess PUTIN’S own role in this turn toward state control, it is worth looking more closely at PUTIN’S role in Gazprom, the publicly traded but majority-state-owned gas company. Gazprom is one of the largest companies worldwide, and its activities provided 8 percent of Russia's GDP in 2011. Mr Mikhayl Krutikhin of RusEnergy, a consultancy firm, stated bluntly, "Gazprom has only one manager: PUTIN.” And this assessment is no hyperbole. According to the websites of the Russian government and the Kremlin, PUTIN has met Gazprom chief Aleksey Miller, who served as PUTIN'S deputy on the Committee for Foreign Liaison in St. Petersburg, over one hundred times —— including dozens of one-on-one meetings, since Miller became head of Gazprom in 2001. By way of comparison, the number of times American and British government websites list the then president of the United States and Britian's Prime Minister meeting one-on-one with the CEOs of an American prominent oil company or British Petroleum? Zero.

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

GDP
國內生産總值

consultancy 諮詢公司;顧問服務公司

hyperbole 誇張法

deputy 代理人;副職,副手

Liaison 聯絡官,聯絡人

prominent 著名的;重要的

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people


[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-20 03:33 PM 編輯 ]



實用相關搜尋: Trade

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轉載】Financial analysts express concern that as much as 70 percent of Gazprom's capital investments are nontransparent, non-gas-related capital expenditures, and that such behavior is tantamount to "value destruction." In the early years of PUTIN'S presidency there were still independent members of boards of directors. One such was Bill Browder, an American with British citizenship who was chairman of Hermitage Capital Management. Browder had been a huge backer of PUTIN and had endorsed the arrest of Mr Khodorkovskiy and the expropriation of Mr Yukos assets. He seemed like a perfect candidate to be on Gazprom's board.

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

tantamount to sth
幾近於;等於,相當於

board of directors: the group of people who shareholders choose to manage a company or organization

endorse (公開) 贊同,認可,支援

expropriate (尤指無償充公) 徵用,沒收;(尤指個人非法)侵佔,把…據為己有


[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-20 03:33 PM 編輯 ]






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轉載】The use of intermediary firms as nontransparent, value-draining (and criminal) enterprises is legendary throughout the Russian economy, but PUTIN'S Gazprom definitely gets the prize. A U.S. Embassy cable released concluded that RosUkrEnergo (RUE) was a money-making operation for the Kremlin. Gazprom itself owned 50 percent of RUE, and 50 percent was owned by two Ukrainian oligarchs, Dmitriy Firtash (45 percent) and Ivan Fursin (5 percent). But “the circle of true beneficiaries of RUE is wider and includes Semyon Mogilevich, a Russian organized crime boss wanted by the FBI and currently in custody in Russia.” Mogilevich was soon released and took up residence in Moscow, where he lives freely. The Ukrainian government insisted that RUE be removed as middleman, but the U.S. Embassy reported that another intermediary company had already been registered to take its place.

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

intermediary
調解人,中間人

money-making: making a profit or giving the opportunity to make a profit

oligarch 寡頭政治家;寡頭統治集團成員
custody (尤指等候法庭審判期間的) 監禁,拘留

take up residence/residency somewhere 到 (某地) 定居;開始定居在 (某地)

middleman 經銷商;中間商

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people


[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-20 03:34 PM 編輯 ]




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轉載Focus on RUE was important because it was seen in the West as a major vehicle for bringing together the Kremlin, business interests, and organized crime. Beginning in the mid-2000s the U.S. intelligence community provided a major assessment of the threat to U.S. national security posed, according to a Justice Department source, by the “growing nexus in Russian and Eurasian states among government, organized crime, intelligence services, and big business figures," including in the fields of energy and finance. Without naming Russia or PUTIN specifically, Attorney General Michael Mukasey stated that of all the threats posed by international organized crime, the first was that “international organized criminals control significant positions in the global energy and strategic materials markets ... So-called ‘iron triangles’ of corrupt business leaders, corrupt government officials, and organized criminals exert substantial influence over the economies of many countries.... One of the most well-known recent examples is the case of Semyon Mogilevich (the Russian organized crime boss) [who] ... is said to exert influence over large portions of the natural gas industry in parts of what used to be the Soviet Union."

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

vehicle (實現、產生或表達…的) 方法,手段,媒介

Kremlin 克裡姆林宮;俄羅斯政府

organized crime 犯罪集團;有組織犯罪,集團犯罪

national security 國家安全

pose 造成,引起 (尤指問題或困難)

nexus (重要的) 連接,聯繫

Eurasian 歐亞 (大陸) 的

figures 人物

strategic 有助於計劃成功的;戰略 (性) 的

exert 運用;行使 (權威、權力等);施加 (影響等)

substantial 大的;可觀的;價值巨大的;重大的

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-20 03:35 PM 編輯 ]






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[隱藏]
轉載Mogilevich’s relationship to PUTIN is of utmost interest but is not likely to be written about in open-source texts. However, their relationship was the subject of a conversation illicitly recorded by the security chief of the Ukrainian president Leonid Kuchma. The conversation is said to be between Leonid Derkach, the former head of the Ukrainian security services (SBU), and Kuchma on February 8, 2000:

Kuchma: Have you found Mogilevich (the Russian organized crime boss) ?

Derkach: I found him.

Kuchma: So, are you two working now ?

Derkach: We're working. We have another meeting tomorrow. He arrives incognito.

Later in the discussion Derkach revealed a few details about Mogilevich:

Derkach: He's on good terms with PUTIN. He (the Russian organized crime boss) and PUTIN have been in contact since PUTIN was still in Leningrad.

Kuchma: I hope we won’t have any problems because of this.

Derkach: They have their own affairs.

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

utmost 最大的;極度的

illicit 非法的;違禁的;社會不容許的

incognito 隱姓埋名地;隱藏身分地

be on good, friendly, etc. terms (with sb): to have a good, friendly, etc. relationship with someone

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 10:57 AM 編輯 ]

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轉載】In addition to RosUkrEnergo, an investigation by the anticorruption crusader Aleksey Navalnyy showed that PUTIN'S Gazprom was buying gas from an independent producer, Novatek, through an intermediary, Transinvestgas. Police discovered that days before the purchase, PUTIN'S Gazprom had turned down an offer to buy gas directly from Novatek, cutting out Transinvestgas, for 70 percent less. Transinvestgas transferred $10 million of the amount received to a “consulting company,” which the police found had been registered using “two stolen passports.”

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

crusader: someone who makes a determined effort to achieve or stop something because of their strong beliefs

intermediary 中間人

turn sth/ sb down 拒絕 (提議或請求)

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 10:55 AM 編輯 ]






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轉載】All these activities, plus asset stripping in which subsidiary companies were sold to Kremlin insiders at below-value prices, led the economist Mr Anders Aslund to calculate that in 2011 alone, the total amount of waste and corruption in PUTIN'S Gazprom may have reached $40 billion, as compared to $44.7 billion in profits -- a situation that prompted him to conclude that the company resembled more an “organized crime syndicate” than a legal corporation. PUTIN'S Gazprom has more than one hundred wholly or majority-owned subsidiaries and affiliated companies registered in PUTIN'S Russia as of 2014, and another hundred subsidiaries were registered abroad already by 2007, including five in the Virgin Islands, nine in Cyprus, seven in Switzerland, and two in the Cayman Islands.
...
It is not immediately clear why a state-owned company like Gazprom would be motivated to engage in asset stripping and then to allow these subsidiaries to register in tax havens and avoid paying state taxes. The rationale is simple: by stripping assets from the state-owned part of the company and selling them to insiders and relatives as subsidiaries, they can be registered abroad as private entities, operating in the world's tastiest tax havens for the personal benefit of their private owners, not Russian taxpayers. In any Western country, this would be called criminal malfeasance. In PUTIN'S Russia it is called government.

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

asset-stripping
資產倒賣 (指低價買入經營不善的公司,然後透過拆分,出售其資產而獲利),資產剝離

subsidiary 子公司;附屬公司

the Kremlin 克裡姆林宮;俄羅斯政府;(舊時) 蘇聯政府

insider 內部的人,知情人,瞭解內幕者

organized crime 犯罪集團;有組織犯罪,集團犯罪

syndicate 聯盟;私人聯合會;企業聯合組織

affiliate 使併入,使隸屬 (較大的團體或組織);使緊密聯繫

Cyprus 賽普勒斯

state-owned:  owned by a state

engage in sth 參加;參與

register (尤指把姓名) 登記,註冊,記錄

tax haven 避稅地

rationale 根本原因;基本原理

entity 實體;獨立存在體

malfeasance (尤指掌權者的) 違法亂紀行為,瀆職

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people


[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-20 03:42 PM 編輯 ]






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轉載Both the board of directors and the Management Committee of Gazprom are packed with PUTIN coworkers from the KGB and St. Petersburg who lack prior significant energy experience:

- Chairman of the Management Committee Aleksey Miller, PUTIN'S deputy in St. Petersburg at the Committee for Foreign Liaison

- Chairman of the Board of Trustees Viktor Zubkov, deputy chairman of the agricultural subcommittee of PUTIN'S KVS, head of the district where PUTIN'S dacha was built

- Member of the Board Valerity Musin, who was PUTIN'S supervisor in the Law Faculty at Leningrad State University

- Member of the Board Andrey Akimov, who was a banker in Vienna at the time the CPSU and KGB money started to be sent abroad

- Deputy Chairman of the Management Committee Valeriy Golubev, formerly Leningrad KGB, St. Petersburg mayor's office, head of Vasileostrovskiy District when PUTIN moved into an apartment there

- Head of Gazprom's Investment and Construction Department Yaroslav Golko, said by Russian analysts to be a Rotenberg protégé

- Chief Accountant Elena Vasil'eva, who had worked with PUTIN'S Miller in St. Petersburg's ports

- Aleksandr Medvedev, another Vienna banker with an alleged KGB background

- Head of Gazprom's Department of Finance and Economics Andrey Kruglov, who was head of the Foreign Operations Department of Dresdner Bank when Matthias Warnig was its chief.

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

board of directors: the group of people who shareholders choose to manage a company or organization

Management Committee: a group of senior people who take decisions about how a company, or part of a company, is managed

co-worker 同事,同僚;(尤指) 共同工作者,幫手

deputy 代理人;副職,副手

Liaison 聯絡,聯繫,溝通

board of trustees: a group of people who are responsible for making rules and financial decisions on behalf of a not-for-profit organization (= a hospital, university, etc.)

subcommittee (委員會下設的) 小組委員會,專門小組

the board (of directors) 董事會,理事會,委員會

protégé 受提攜的後進;門徒,門生

alleged 被指控的

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people

P.S. The Wall Street Journal interviewed Mr Frank Weigelt, who claimed to be Matthias Warnig's supervisor at the time; Mr Weigelt said that Warnig had recruited twenty agents in the 1980s in West Germany to steal military rocket and aricraft technology ... According to Mr Zuchold, "Warnig was in one of the several KGB cells PUTIN organized in Dresden." Mr Zuchold further claimed that Warnig's cell operated "under the guise of a business consultancy" but was actually recruiting agents for the KGB.

cell 一小部分;小組織

guise (尤指為了欺騙而裝出的) 外表,表現形式;偽裝

consultancy 諮詢公司;顧問服務公司

[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-21 10:52 AM 編輯 ]




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轉載】Named in Barron's in 2014 as the "Worst-Managed Company on the Planet," PUTIN'S Gazprom was trading in May 2014 at a 43 percent discount, compared to an average of 3 percent for other European energy companies. Its share price had dropped from just under $16 in 2008 to just over $4 in late spring 2014, after the stock had rebounded from a $3 low during the Crimean crisis.

Despite the Russian state's obvious need for more financial inflows, when PUTIN'S Gazprom signed a thirty-year gas deal with China in May 2014, it is telling that PUTIN sweetened the package by giving Gazprom a TAX BREAK. Such a move will deprive the Russian budget, according to a Russian economist, "of most of the potential income from the deal." Some analysts hope that companies close to the Kremlin will alter their ways and stop taking such a huge skim for personal and nonrelated state projects so that the companies can become more profitable. HOWEVER, these analysts fail to understand the logic at the core of PUTIN'S system: profound access to riches is provided in return for ABSOLUTE loyalty to PUTIN. PUTIN himself alone decides who and what will be profitable. There is NO more important rule in today's Russia.

PUTIN'S KLEPTOCRACY: Who Owns Russia ?

Author: Professor Ms Karen Dawisha
Publisher: SIMON & SCHUSTER

rebound
彈回;反彈;跳回

sweeten 使更具有吸引力,使更誘人

tax break: a change in the law that results in the opportunity to pay less in taxes

deprive 奪走,搶走,剝奪

the Kremlin 克裡姆林宮;俄羅斯政府

skim 盜取 (信用卡密碼等) (用一種設備暗中紀錄某人為某物支付時的信用卡詳細細節,以便非法使用他們的信用卡帳戶)

core 核心,關鍵,最重要的部分

profound 強烈的;深沉的;極度的

in return 作為交換;作為回報

KLEPTOCRACY: a society whose leaders make themselves rich and powerful by stealing from the rest of the people


[ 本帖最後由 智安 於 2017-7-24 11:27 AM 編輯 ]



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